Blasts From The Past

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Captain Cox stick 02 low res
 
Captain H V M Cox's hockey stick from the Indian Army Hockey Team tour to New Zealand in 1926.
The engraved plate reads:

1926 Indian Army Hockey Team v New Zealand.
390 goals for. 37 against.
Stick used by Captain V M H Cox throughout the tour.

 

This stick is one of the most important in existence. As stated on the engraved plate it was used in 1926, so it will actually be a few years older. In THM’s collection we have sticks going back to the 1890s and before, but it is the provenance and story behind this stick that make it so special.

It was owned by Captain H V M Cox, an officer in the British Army in India after WW1. He served in the 8th Punjab Regiment. British servicemen were responsible for introducing hockey to India during the previous decades. By the mid 1920s the popularity of hockey was such that an international tour was proposed, the full details of which are included in a fascinating article by Dil Bahra (click here).

 

Indian Army Hockey Team tour of New Zealand 1926
 
Indian Army Hockey Team in New Zealand 1926.
Photo credit: Thakar Singh family collection & SikhsinHockey.com.

 

The touring party was made up of 17 players, four of whom were British Officers. They played 21 matches in New Zealand (NZ) which included three games against the NZ national team that had previously only played against Australia. With one win, one draw and one loss, honours were even. These three matches were later included in India's national playing records and this team formed the basis of the amazing Indian team that went on to win Olympic gold in 1928, 1932 and 1936. The British Officers that took part retrospectively became international hockey players for India.

Whilst they would never have known of this elevated status, it would be wonderful to make contact with their descendants. They included Capt. Cox, making his stick perhaps the only tangible relic of India's first ever international match.

Lt CA Campbell

Lt Charles Arthur Campbell

 

It seems highly likely that Lt Charles Arthur Campbell was the first hockey player to make the ultimate sacrifice in WW1 as there were so few others killed, officers or soldiers, before the Battle at Mons.

Lt Campbell was born in London but grew up in Worthing and learnt his hockey at Downside School (1901-09) and the Royal Military College Sandhurst before joining the army in 1911. He was to lead a long list of 2nd Lieutenants and Lieutenants who were to be killed in action during WW1 as more of these ranks lost their lives than any other.

He was first Lieutenant Officer of the Cheshire Regiment to die and, as the captain of the Regiment hockey team, was probably the first hockey player to die in WW1. The strength of the 1st Battalion of the Cheshire marching out that day at Mons was 27 Officers, 1 Warrant Officer and 933 men.

At roll call in Bivouac at Les Bavay there were just six Officers, a Warrant Officer and 199 men. In just one day 78% of the regiment were either killed, wounded or missing as many were taken prisoner; three officers and 54 NCOs were dead, 15 officers were wounded as were many other ranks, some of whom would die of their wounds days later. Some 490 soldiers were captured including half of the hockey team as the battalion collapsed.

Although Lt Charles Campbell was probably the first regular hockey player to die, he would soon be followed by hockey players of note including two 1908 Olympic gold medallists Reginald George Pridmore and John Yate Robinson, as well as one of the North’s best forwards to wear an England shirt Arnold Inman Draper.

Mike Smith, May 2017

This research project was prompted by the enormous interest and publicity that has surrounded the centenary of the start of WW1. We knew that many, indeed thousands, of hockey players were involved and that many lost their lives. The stories do not just relate to serving men but also those men and women supporting the war at home. It soon became clear that people’s service and involvement with hockey spanned a period much greater than the four years of WW1. We therefore decided to begin this research at the start of the 20th century and to look for any stories that linked hockey and hockey people to any military or conflict situations.

This is a fairly broad remit but by the end of 2015 we had over 140 stories spanning a wide variety of activity. This not only includes very military situations and gallantry but also civilian contributions, school hockey in wartime, espionage and much more. Some of the stories probably merit feature film treatment and indeed one of them has been filmed. Many are very personal, poignant and compelling.

A selection of the stories will be drawn together in a publication before 2018, the centenary of the end of WW1. In the meantime we are presenting a selection of WW1 stories on this website as a tribute to what happened a century ago. They will appear here, on or about their centenaries. Many of our stories will have a Naval background to them as we are fortunate to have amongst our volunteers Lt Cdr Alan Walker RN (Ret’d) who is an acknowledged authority on Naval and hockey history. Alan’s articles will be interspersed with other stories that we have learned of during our compilation of HMS.

If you have any information that relates to hockey or a hockey person to either the military or a conflict then please let us know by contacting The Hockey Museum Curator using the contact form.

LoftusWilliamJones portraitOnce the First World War had begun it became obvious that the Royal Navy, traditionally the pride of the British Nation for centuries, would have to play a vital role in what would become both a domestic and global conflict or perish in the attempt. Not for nothing is the Navy the Senior Service. Popular opinion had it, not without some good spin doctors and a jingoistic press, “that the British sailors, ships and know-how were simply the best.” Much of this may have inclined to the mythical but since Nelson and Trafalgar and Nelson’s fighting methods, the whole world believed it, not least the British – and probably more importantly – so did the Germans.

At 14.00 on 31 May 1916 HMS Shark (below right), captained by Cdr LW Jones (right), was afloat with three other destroyers, Ophelia, Christopher and Acaster and two Light Cruisers. Commander Loftus William Jones came from a strong naval family, with both his father and uncle having been Admirals. He began his naval career in 1892 at the age of thirteen, serving on seven ships before being promoted Commander in June 1914 and taking command of HMS Shark in October of that year. No enemy ships were known to be in the vicinity and Shark’s Officers and men were relaxed, comfortable and rested, even after nearly two years of war.

LoftusWilliamJones HMSSharkOn 31 March 1916 at 14.20, messages were received that enemy ships were now known to be in the vicinity and were on an intercepting course. The Ships Companies all went to action stations and the six ships proceeded at full speed to intercept.

At 17.20, three hours later, gunfire was heard. It was not known at the time but these sounds would signal the opening salvoes of the long-awaited battle between the two fleets. Within twenty minutes, ten German Destroyers and Light Cruisers arrived and launched their attack on HMS Hood’s Third Battle Cruiser Squadron. The four British Destroyers led by Jones broke up this offensive and they regrouped with the Canterbury and the Chester (of Boy Cornwell VC fame).

‘The six’ were then attacked by three German Battle Cruisers, intent upon ‘getting at’ the British Battle Cruisers. Under heavy fire, Shark was hit and a shell fragment destroyed the Bridge steering wheel. Jones ran down the Bridge ladder with his wounded Cox’n (Coxswain) and a Signalman, their one thought to get to the after Emergency Conning Position (ECP). On the way, when joined by Able Seamen Charles Smith, Charles Hope and Joseph Howell, another shell blew away the forward gun, laid waste the fo’c’s’le (forecastle), and killed all the forward gun’s crew but one. Another shell wrecked the Bridge. The Commanding Officer (CO) of one of Jones’s four destroyers, HMS Acaster, placed his ship between Shark and the enemy and once in hailing distance, a Leading Signalman presented the compliments of his Captain, Lt Commander John Ouchterlonie Barron RN and enquired whether Shark, “Would require any assistance?” Jones thanked him, presented his compliments to Lt Cdr Barron and replied that, “Barron should not put himself in danger/get himself killed (accounts differ) in order to help us.”

Enemy fire remained intense, it was obvious that their shells were full of shrapnel (the scourge of the hockey player Westmacott in 1914). Some struck Jones in the thigh and face, he was observed wiping the blood away with his hands. Petty Officer (PO) Cox’n William Griffin was hit again and was knocked unconscious. Jones sustained further damage to his leg and, as the Medical Officer had already been killed, he was ‘patched up’ by none other than the Chief Stoker. There had been two Chief Petty Officer (CPO) Stokers (Thomas Hamill and Frank Newcombe) on board, both did not survive.

As Hood and The Third Battle Cruiser Squadron increased speed, still on an essentially southerly course, Shark and company were left to their own devices. By now the after gun had been put out of action leaving only that amidships and the torpedo tubes.

The situation continued to worsen rapidly. The remaining crew were struggling to get away their final torpedo when the ‘tinfish’ itself was stuck as the crew were trying to load it and it exploded, killing and maiming even more of the depleted ship’s company and only leaving the ‘midships gun in commission.

Jones, from his position at the ECP was informed of further damage to the main engines and to steam pipes in the boiler room. Then Jones and the three Able Seamen (Hope Smith and Howell) went forward to man the ‘midships gun, Jones spotted the fall of shot. The situation was looking hopeless and he took the decision for surviving members to come up on deck to get collision mats in place and ready the life boats whilst he began to destroy confidential books and documents. There may have been a lull in German gunfire owing to a question in German minds, had Shark ‘struck her colours’, or just had them shot away?

Then, Jones’s leg was shot off above the knee.

Jones lay on the deck while two of his three lads tried to stem his bleeding whilst the other kept firing. He noticed that the Ship’s Ensign had been shot away, so he gave orders for a new one to be ‘bent on’. After this act of defiance, the ship was a fair target again in German eyes so their destruction of Shark was recommenced. The sailors continued to fire the ‘midships gun and as one of them fell Jones took his place.

At 19.00 Shark was sunk by a German torpedo. Two more were fired and only served to blow many of the men on life-rafts into the water. Of the ninety-one members of the ship’s company, twenty crew members had taken to the life-rafts and only six eventually survived to be picked up by a Danish ship, the SS Vidar, in response to a flare from a life-raft, and taken home to Hull later that night. According to those who survived, Jones was last seen clinging to a life-raft and encouraging fellow survivors to sing! However like many others, he succumbed to loss of blood, exhaustion and the cold and at some point slipped into the sea. Petty Officer William Griffin, who had been twice wounded in the attack, later recalled the scene. “On all sides there was chaos. Dead and dying lay everywhere around. The decks were a shambles. Great fragments of the ship’s structure were strewn everywhere”.

Whilst Jones and several life-rafted survivors were still alive, British Battle Cruisers swept past giving chase to the Germans. Honour restored! On being told, “They are ours”, Jones replied “That’s good”. Minutes later he lapsed into unconsciousness.

LoftusWilliamJones MedalsCdr LW Jones's medals. His Victoria Cross (far left) has a blue ribbon signifying his naval affiliation. This is one of the last times blue ribbons were used; thereafter VCs were awarded with purple ribbon regardless of military affiliation.

 

The Aftermath

Commander Jones’s Body was washed ashore on the Swedish coast. He still wore the Lifebelt that he had worn when being helped into the sea and on to a life-raft.

On 23 October 1916, his widow Margaret received a letter from The Admiralty informing her of the following – that on 24 June 1916, more than three weeks after the sinking – his body had been committed to a grave in Fiskebackskil, Vastra, Gotaland (Sweden) churchyard. His funeral had been attended by many local folk. Furthermore, a monument had been very quickly erected as a result of subscriptions from local fishermen. The ceremony had been marked with all due sympathy and reverence and this would be relayed to the British Public.

The story of Jones’s dedication to duty and his bravery would take a further six months to come out and the award of the Victoria Cross (VC) was not ‘gazetted’ until 6 March 1917.

Mrs Jones and her daughter Linette (then 6) had visited the grave and monument in Sweden before all remains were transferred, in 1961, to the British War Graves plot at Kviberg cemetery, Gothenberg, Sweden. She also had some of his personal effects returned to her. It was revealed that one of her husband’s last acts had been to say, “Let’s have a song lads”. Apparently one of the twenty on life-rafts (but not an eventual survivor) had been the First Lieutenant who had started singing, “Nearer my God to thee” (shades of Titanic, four years earlier).

Mrs Jones received her husband’s VC from King George V at Buckingham Palace on 31 March 1917.

Lord Michael Ashcroft purchased Commander Jones’ VC and Service Medals in early 2014 along with his water stained wrist watch, smashed binoculars and the lifebelt he was wearing when he died. His VC and watch went on display at the Imperial War Museum in London.

Over the 100 years since the Battle of Jutland, countless thousands have marvelled at Jones’ Bravery, but only Royal Navy Hockey had any inkling of that other string to his bow – a hockey player who was a member of a cup winning team in 1902.

Alan Walker, July 2016

ArethusaPerhaps the first Naval hockey player to become a casualty of the Great War? Lieutenant Eric Walter Poyntz Westmacott RN was on the left wing for the Royal Navy in 1912 and in 1914 he was reported as "the best player in the Navy team". That was to be his last performance on the hockey field. With war declared in early August, Westmacott had joined HMS Arethusa (right) as a Signals Officer and right hand man to Commodore Tyrwhitt, the Commanding Officer of the Harwich Force of 33 ships.

Westmacott was at the side of his Commanding Officer (CO) when he was killed in action by shrapnel in the Battle of Heligoland in the North Sea on the 28 August 1914. Death by flying shrapnel is very random and two feet the other way could have caused the death of his CO.

The Battle of Heligoland Bight, 28 August 1914, was a very welcome victory for the Royal Navy, offsetting the dismal news from the Continent. The Imperial German Navy lost cruisers Mainz, Ariadne and Koln plus the destroyer V187, while all the British ships returned home with varying degrees of damage.

The new light cruiser HMS Arethusa, wearing the Broad Pennant of Commodore Reginald Tyrwhitt, commanding the Harwich Force, came in for a certain amount of acclaim, having engaged several enemy ships receiving a significant amount of damage. In fact, such was her damage HMS Arethusa had to be towed back to port.

Lt Westmacott was 27. He was married to Dorethy Bentall and they had recently enjoyed the birth of their first child. He is buried in Heybridge Cemetary, Essex and is commemorated on the town’s war memorial and on a memorial plaque and the Roll of Honour in the church of St Andrew, Heybridge.

 

Westmacott E W P Lt Royal NavyLife And Military Career

23 June 1887 - Date of birth

15 September 1902 - HMS Britannia (RN College Dartmouth) - Cadet

15 January 1904 - HMS Illustrious - Med Fleet - Mid

18 April 1904 - HMS London - Med Fleet - Mid

13 May 1905 - HMS Implacable - Med Fleet - Mid

17 July 1906 - HMS Swiftsure - Channel Fleet - Mid

30 March 1907 - Promoted to Sub-Lieutenant

May 1907 - Sub-Lieutenant's courses, Portsmouth - Sub Lt

February 1908 - Lieutenants courses, Greenwich - Sub Lt

10 August 1908 - HMS Drake - Channel Fleet - Sub Lt

30 June 1909 - Promoted to Lieutenant

4 September 1909 - HMS Argyll - Atlantic Fleet - Lt

3 February 1912 - Long signal course, Portsmouth - Lt

21 August 1912 - HMS Blenheim - 3DF Depot Ship - Lt

1 October 1913 - HMS Amethyst - Cdre T destroyer flotillas - Lt(S)

August 1914 - HMS Arethusa - Killed In Action (KIA) 28 August 14 - Lt(S)

Blasts From The Past: An Introduction

This features page includes articles from hockey's rich history. With the ever increasing activity of The Hockey Museum, our research is constantly coming across fascinating stories from throughout the sport's history and across the hockey world. These are not current news stories although some may have been when they occurred....

Louis Charles Baillon: The Only Falkland Islander Olympic Champion

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Alan Turing: WW2 hockey-playing hero features on £50 note

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Christ’s Hospital's Jovial WW1 Charity Match

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Kenya Hockey Olympians Conference

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The ‘Hockey Girl’ And The Pursuit of Love

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A Biography of Janet Macklin (née Smallwood)

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The Festival of Britain’s Grand International Hockey Tournament 1951

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Harvey Wood: England’s Mysterious Giant Goalkeeper

Harvey Wood: England’s Mysterious Giant Goalkeeper

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Bandy In Shakespeare

Bandy In Shakespeare

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Hockey-Playing Thespians Of The Edwardian Era

Hockey-Playing Thespians Of The Edwardian Era

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It's A Date: Celebrating the First Scotland Women's International Match

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Easter Festivals in Years Gone By

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An Amazing Find As The Hockey Museum Links Up With The British Museum

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Welsh Honours Caps: A Tale of Interrelated Research

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Remembering Wembley

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Wembley Was A Family Affair

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The First Ever Women's International Hockey Match in 1896

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Unearthing Further Hockey Connections At Sutton Hoo

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Digging Hockey: An Excavation of Edith Pretty's Links to Hockey

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Never Defeated By Wine Or In A Game: A Secret Edwardian Gentlemen's Hockey Club

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The Jean Arnold Collection: The Lord Mayor's Cup

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Baffling Brass Buttons

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A Tale Of Principled Pilley

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A Rare Item In The Modern Hockey World

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Old Creightonians Archive Arrives With A Suprise

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Terrific Trophies

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The Work Of Preserving Hockey Heritage: Saving The AEWHA Scrapbook

The Work Of Preserving Hockey Heritage: Saving The AEWHA Scrapbook

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A Vintage Christmas Present? From India To The London Stage

A Vintage Christmas Present? From India To The London Stage

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An Early Easter Hockey Tour

An Early Easter Hockey Tour

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Bullets Stopped Play

Bullets Stopped Play

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Hockey Played In Antarctica

Hockey Played In Antarctica

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Bringing History To Life With Juan Calzado

Bringing History To Life With Juan Calzado

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An Update On The English Cup

An Update On The English Cup

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Three Antique Silver Cups From The Royal Navy HA

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The Grand International Match

The Grand International Match

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The Liberty Bodice

The Liberty Bodice

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Hockey And Football: A Comparison

Hockey And Football: A Comparison

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An Illegal Hockey Stick

An Illegal Hockey Stick

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The Jet-propelled Hockey Stick That Didn't Take Off!

The Jet-propelled Hockey Stick That Didn't Take Off!

In response to the many enquiries that we receive at The Hockey Museum our volunteers are constantly trawling through hockey publications in search of information. These searches often take twice as long as expected because we find unrelated pieces that are very interesting. One such piece was discovered recently in...

Hockey On The Sand At Minehead

Hockey On The Sand At Minehead

Hockey players on the beach at Minehead with North Hill behind. Photograph by Alfred Vowles.  Unlike most of today's youngsters who learn to play on artificial pitches, Nan Williams, a former England international and volunteer at The Hockey Museum (THM), started her playing career on the sands of Minehead on the...

Have You Heard Of The English Cup?

Have You Heard Of The English Cup?

I have recently joined the many volunteers working with the The Hockey Museum. As I live in the Manchester area I am quite away from all the action, however I have recently been forwarded a couple of enquires from the Museum in relation to matters from the North! My first...

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